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Although prostitution in the German Democratic Republic was outlawed init was partially tolerated thereafter. A quotation from Uta Falck summarises prostitution in the GDR as follows: "In the GDR, all parties benefited from prostitution: the rich women, the satisfied suitors, the informed state.
Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate.
We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus.
As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing female environment.
Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in for hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. Keywords: estrogens; leipzig transition periods; neurotransmitters; plasticity; progesterone. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Search: Search. Advanced Clipboard. Display options Display options. Create file Cancel. citation Subject: 1 selected item: - PubMed.
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Prostitution in the german democratic republic
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Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods
of items displayed: 5 10 leipzig 20 50 Create RSS Cancel. RSS Link Copy. Full text links Cite Display options Display options. Abstract Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Figures Figure 1 Schematic representation of the main…. Estrogen red triangles receptors are predominantly present in cerebellum, VTA, hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal cortex; as well as in the raphe nuclei of the midbrain Gundlah et al.
Progesterone filled circles receptor expression could be shown in the amygdala, midbrain, brain stem, hippocampus, cerebellum and female cortex with no apparent restrictions to specific cell types Bethea, ; Gundlah for al.
A The cortical glutamatergic projections can be separated in five main pathways Schwartz et al.
B GABAergic projections are widely distributed throughout the brain. Main projections can be found originating in the striatum to the substantia nigra and the brain stem. Further projections innervate the thalamus from the substantia nigra Fino and Venance, Moreover, GABAergic projections originate from 1 hypothalamus to occipital cortex and parietal cortex; 2 from hippocampus to thalamus and striatum, and 3 from nucleus accumbens to thalamus.
The cerebellum is also highly innervated by GABAergic projections. C The cortical dopaminergic pathways build four distinct pathways Felten and Shetty, : 1 the mesolimbic pathway; with projections from VTA to limbic structures, such as the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex, 2 the mesocortical pathway; with projections from the VTA to cerebral cortex, 3 the nigrostriatal pathway; with for female substantia nigra and striatum, 4 the tuberoinfundibular pathway; with projections starting from the hypothalamus to the pituitary gland.
D The majority of serotonergic projections originates from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, innervating the amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, striatum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus Felten and Shetty, : 1 The medial raphe predominantly projects to the frontal cortex and the hippocampus Hornung, and 2 the leipzig of the dorsal raphe mainly sex the thalamus, striatum and cerebral cortex Geyer et al. Figure 2 Vulnerability for development of a…. Figure 2 Vulnerability for development of a depressive illness corresponds to main hormonal transitions across….
Vulnerability for development of a depressive illness corresponds to main hormonal transitions across the female lifespan.
Estrogen and progesterone levels start declining during perimenopause 41—51 yearsdrop considerably postmenopausally 45—65 years and remain fairly stable during old age above 65 years. See this image and copyright information in PMC. Similar articles Optimizing quality of life through sex steroids by their effects on neurotransmitters. Giannini A, et al. Epub Dec PMID: Review.
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Rehbein E, et al. Epub Mar Estrogen- and progesterone-mediated structural neuroplasticity in women: evidence from neuroimaging. Catenaccio E, et al. Brain Struct Funct.
Epub Feb Enriched environment influences hormonal status and hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor in a sex dependent manner. Bakos J, et al.
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Epub Aug PMID: Interactions between hormones and epilepsy. See all similar articles. Cited by articles Metabolic depletion of synaptosomal enzymes linked with neurotoxicity and ovarian dysfunction by phenolic antioxidants of Croton zambsicus leaves in rats exposed to chronic mixture of anthropogenic toxicant. Akintunde JK, et al. Metabol Open. Gender differences in factors associated with symptoms of depression among high school students: an examination of the direct and indirect effects of insomnia symptoms and physical activity.
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Roeder HJ, et al. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. Alebna P, Maleki N. Alebna P, et al. Front Neurol. See all "Cited by" articles. References Abdallah C. Glutamate metabolism in major depressive disorder.
Estrogen modulates synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit distribution in the aged hippocampus. Different modes of hippocampal plasticity in response to estrogen in young and aged female rats. Effects of estrogen variation on neural correlates of emotional response inhibition. Neuroimage 32, — Science— Publication types Review Actions.